Like visual storytelling, scriptwriting is a significant aspect of filmmaking. An excellent script gives your audience an immersive experience, compelling them to watch the movie with delight. In addition, you can adapt numerous literary devices into your writing for an impressive script. Literary devices are writing techniques that help you portray a story or poem interestingly. One such literary device is dramatic irony. In this article, let us see how to integrate this incredible device into your script.
What is Dramatic Irony?
Dramatic irony is a type of irony that a writer includes to instill the elements of suspense in a story. It consists of events whose happenings are unknown to a story’s character. However, the audience is aware of it. For example, consider the horror movie Halloween, where a lady innocent of the killer’s entry gets killed in the kitchen. However, as the audience, we will be able to see the killer sneaking into the house and anticipate the impending danger for the lady.
In addition, dramatic irony is a sub-type of irony, a form of writing technique where a writer includes an event in a story contrary to what was expected to happen. Writers often adapt this device to spice the story with humor or suspense. There are three types of irony. They include:
- Dramatic Irony
- Verbal Irony
- Situational Irony
The technique of dramatic irony is commonly employed across various genres owing to its versatility. Some of the genres where this technique is used include:
Dramatic Irony Definition
According to the dictionary, dramatic irony is defined as “ Irony that is inherent in speeches or a drama situation and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.”
First Known Use of Dramatic Irony
The origin of the word irony can be traced back to the Greek word ‘eiron’, meaning ‘to struggle.’ Aristotle first coined the term dramatic irony in his book “ Poetics.” This technique first appeared in Greek tragedies on “The God of Wine” in a vase.
How to Use Dramatic Irony?
1. To Project Humor
Sometimes misunderstandings can lead to humor. Dramatic Irony is a powerful way to generate misunderstandings. Hence, you can use it to spice your story.
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2. To Infuse Suspense
Dramatic irony reveals the truth to the audience first. As a result, you get the chance to engross your audience into the scene. In addition, you can build suspense as your character learns the truth next. First, however, you need to understand its subtype to use dramatic irony in your writing.
Tragic Irony- a subtype of dramatic irony
The tragic irony is a dramatic irony wherein the audience knows that a tragedy will occur to the story’s character due to their actions or spoken words. However, the character is unaware of the impending catastrophe.
Examples of Tragic Irony
In the video below, Romeo and Juliet individually believe that the other person is dead, and they commit a tragic suicide, whereas the audience knows the truth. This is a classic example.
Stages of Dramatic Irony
If you wish to include dramatic irony in your writing, you must follow its established structure. This way, you can exactly achieve the effect of humor or suspense. In addition, you need to remember that dramatic irony:
- Consumes time
- Results in the dissipation of tension
Dramatic irony progresses in three stages within your story, they are:
- Preparation: At this stage, the audience is presented with information unknown to the story’s character.
- Suspension refers to the length of time after which the character learns the truth.
- Resolution: This stage constitutes the consequences after the character knows the truth.
Now that you know the structure of dramatic irony and its sub-type, let us see some examples that will help you grasp its essence better.
Dramatic Irony Examples
In this TV show, Clark is found saying that he doesn’t want to put on a suit and fly. However, as audiences, we are revealed that he wants to fly around.
2. The Truman Show
Although Truman is the star of a TV show, he is unaware of it. On the contrary, the audiences know the truth.
This movie is filled with dramatic irony as a sea creature lunges at humans who throng the beach. In the video, the shark’s presence is revealed to the audience, whereas the characters in the movie don’t realize it. As a result, it builds intense suspense as the audiences look forward to saving the character from the shark. However, our warning voices don’t reach the characters of the movie.
The suspense in the shower scene begins as a sleek shadow is visible on the other side of the bath curtain. Then, when the killer kills Moraine, you will be able to feel a sudden shriek of sympathy.
5. The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Victor Hugo beautifully portrays the dramatic irony as Quasimodo’s assumption that the gypsies were coming to hurt Esmerelda. However, in reality, they were her saviors.
6. The Merchant of Venice
Shakespeare uses dramatic irony when Portio comes to the rescue of Antonio, as a lawyer dressed up like a man. However, the audiences are well aware of Portia’s disguise while Antonio is not.
7. Mufasa’s Death – The Lion King
Mufasa’s son Simba hides into the wilds of the Savannah, blaming himself for his father’s death. In reality, however, Scar, who takes care of Simba, is the cause of Mufasa’s death.
8. Monster’s Inc.
The concept of the movie Monster’s Inc is pretty ironic as the monsters whose job is to scare the children, are instead in constant fear of the children.
9. The Little Mermaid
After saving him from a shipwreck, the little mermaid Ariel falls in love with Eric. To realize her passion, she risks exchanging her voice for a pair of legs. However, Eric doesn’t recognize her and searches for his love elsewhere.
Anna doesn’t own a symbolic frozen heart as she exhibits her true feelings. However, the opening song warns us of her frozen heart.
While King Duncan believes in Macbeth, he plots to kill the King.
12. Oedipus Rex
In Oedipus Rex, as told in Sophocles play, King Oedipus Rex wants to throw light on the killer who assassinated the previous King Laius. However, Oedipus doesn’t realize that he is the assassin.
13. The Rope
In the movie, dramatic irony is used to add humor to the scene. The film’s characters are waiting for David, who has been killed. David’s body is hidden within a chest, which the guests use as a table. The humorous part comes when the guests wait for David’s arrival near the table.
14. The Cabin in the Woods
Five teens are taken to an isolated cabin to perform an ancient ritual in The Cabin in Woods. However, the teens are unaware of it.
15. Crime and Punishment
Crime and Punishment is a classic example of dramatic irony in literature. The book plays hide and seek with the reader as they are fed information before the characters in the book. In addition, some characters are entrusted with more information than the readers.
Othello is convinced that his wife is involved in an extramarital affair. However, the audience knows the truth to be otherwise.
17. Twelfth Night
In the Twelfth Night, the readers know Viola is an imposter. However, the characters in the play believe her to be in a love triangle.
18. Meet the parents
In Meet the parents, Jack suspects Greg to be smoking marijuana. On the contrary, the audience knows the truth to be otherwise.
19. The Silence of the Lambs
The Silence of the Lambs builds up tension as Clarice fumbles in the dark, innocent of Buffalo Bill’s presence right in front of her.
20. The Godfather
In The Godfather, the audience is presented with information on how Michael plans to kill Sollozzo and McCluskey. However, the characters Sollozzo and McCluskey are denied this information.
21. Breaking Bad
In Breaking Bad, Hank Schrader is looking for crystal-meth producer “Heisenberg”, unaware that “Heisenberg” is Schrader’s brother-in-law. However, this fact is presented to the audience.
With enough examples at your disposal, you will be pretty clear of the dramatic irony concept. However, you will still need some input on how to create one. Here are some tips that will help you through your journey.
Tips for Creating Dramatic Irony in Writing
- You can create a complex structure consisting of many characters. In addition, supply each character with unique information. This will help your audience deduce the story based on every character’s information.
- Let your audience know more than your main character. This will introduce an element of suspense into the story as truth dawns on the character.
- Take on a different point of view, telling the story from the perspective of an antagonist.
- You can include turning points in your story around repeated statements to heighten the dramatic irony effect.
As a scriptwriter, if you wish to add elements of suspense and humor to your story, you can very well choose dramatic irony. It immerses your audiences into the scene and helps you produce an astounding film.